Time Axes

In each picture you can draw time axes. Mostly they start from the vanishing point, but sometimes they are different.

If you view it as a clock, where the above picture is number 12, the other pictures are 1,2, 3, 4, and so on… We will use this as a shorter description of the pictures.

At first: These arrows are vectors as well.

In 12:00 the time axis is a circle; It should demonstrate a paradox. And if you look closely at the picture you will see that the isle is an impossible object itself.

In 5:00 the time axis starts where the ghost starts. It is because this picture is about a chemical reaction and starts in the hands of the ghost. Above the ghost the molecules the ghost holds fusioned to another molecule.

In 6:00 the time axis starts where He – Helium is. You have to know that hydrogen and helium were the very first elements that were existent in the universe. Also, stars convert hydrogen to helium. In course of time heavier elements arise, mostly through the death of stars. That’s why the time axis starts at a light element and ends where I drew a molecule.

In 8:00 the time  axis starts where the four tunnels cross, that’s a symbol that life starts where different atoms meet (The tunnels end in atoms).

In 9:00 the time axis is “broken”, it is because of the whole symbolism of this picture which is about time and death.

In 10:00 the time axis is vertical. It’s because of the cell division symbol I used there.

In the picture in the middle there is another closed loop. It looks like a string in string theory by the way. It is a symbol for paradoxes like the circle in the picture at 12:00; it’s just more complex in this case. Also, it combines all the different time axes of the 12 pictures around it in itself. (If you “count” the vectors together they will form the object in the picture in the midde.)

The Symbol of the Isle

Isles seem like single pieces that have no relation to each other. But if we look closer and look below the water, we see it stems from one and the same and that it’s just “hills” in the structure of earth.

But what does it mean? At first, we view it reductionistically; We explore every isle as its own and look at the details it contains. But then we discover that they are related to each other which makes us look holistically at it.

This is an adventure many scientists and mathematicians experience(d). To find connections between connectionless-seeming  theories is indeed ecstatic. It gives us a deeper understanding of the cosmos we live in.


The Special Figure-Background Relationship in each Picture

The above picture by  Scott Kim shows the word “figure”. The tricky part is that even the background tells “figure” – Thus one can’t determine what is background and what is figure!

In my pictures I tried to use this symbolism in form of a ghost. It should be a part of the picture (“environment”/background) and a single part of itself (“observer”/figure). This could lead us to ideas of reductionism and holism.

But, one can’t determine if this ghost explains the pictures as if it was outside the pictures or if it is a part of the pictures itself. In this case, both is true – a common paradox is born!

Another example I have is about the following: One can’t determine the borders of anything for everything interacts vividly. The best example is quantum mechanics, in which particles/waves can even be superposed. A more clear example is the following: If we look at a star, where does it really end? The photons it emits come straight into your eye, or even become a part of you in this sense. Where can you say the star truly ends if everything interacts so wildly and vividly like elementary particles?
You are an observer as well as the environment itself.

There comes a quote to my mind:

“Universe to each must be
All that is, including me.
Environment in turn must be
All that is, excepting me.”

– Buckminster Fuller (Synergetics, 100.012)

This is another paradox.




Wavy Reality

This picture is about the wavy nature of the universe. Everything can be waves, from macrocosmic waves, such as water waves, to sound waves, until we reach the way we view elementary particles, which can in turn be waves as well.

Everything is waves, so said. One quote that comes into my mind is the following:

“What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space.” – Erwin Schrödinger

This is the key of this picture.

The ghost symbolizes a special figure-background relationship.

Distorted Worlds

This picture is about gravity and General Relativity. Gravity can be seen as a force (Newtonian gravity) or a geometry or curvature in spacetime (Einsteinian gravity).

Newton thought that space and time were separated and fixed, whilst Einstein thought space and time form a continuum, the spacetime continuum, and that it is flexible. The following picture shows this difference pretty well with the approximation of a net.

But what does it have for consequencies?

Every planet, or even every particle leaves distortions in the net as Einstein viewed it. The more massive the object the bigger the distortion, and the denser the object the “deeper” the distortion. Not just space gets distorted in the presence of massive objects, also time.

In the picture you can see the ghost holding a melting clock above a spacetime distortion. The melting clock is a symbol for distorted time.

The thing from where the ghost comes is a wormhole or Einstein-Rosen bridge.

The ghost itself is a symbol for a special figure-background relationship.


The Big Question

“The Big Question” is about the question of the cosmological density parameter of our universe.

The density parameter is a parameter that measures the average density of our universe. There are three different kinds.

• Ωtot>1; The density parameter is bigger than 1; then the universe expands and later contracts. This is because the density is high enough for gravity to letting the universe contract. This would end in a Big Crunch, a kind of “Reverse Big Bang”. Thus our universe would have a positive geometry, like a sphere. (In the background there is a sphere in this picture.)

•Ωtot=1; The density parameter is equal to 1; then the universe expands until forever. The density would be too low to letting gravity allow to letting the universe contract. This end is called Big Chill. Thus our universe would have a flat geometry.

• Ωtot<1; The density parameter is smaller than 1; then the universe expands and later expands so fast that galaxies and matter get ripped apart. Then gravity is far weaker than expansion. This end is called Big Rip. Thus our universe would have a negative geometry, like a hyperbolic paraboloid or saddle.

Here are the geometries:

Here is a short summary of the three possible models:

The thing on the left is an accelerating universe, the right thing is a coasting universe and the spehere in the background is a decelerating universe.

Then, did you nothice the colours? The spehere is blue – But why? It has something to do with redshift.

Red light has a longer wavelength, whilst blue has a shorter wavelength. If something moves very fast towards you it will appear more blueish, if something moves very far away from you it will appear reddish. This picture describes it pretty well:

This is because of the doppler effect:

Thus the sphere is blue, because all the galaxies are moving towards each other. In the right object there the galaxies are pink, a kind of mixture between drifting away and coming closer. In the left object there the galaxies are utterly red as symbol for redshift and drifting away.

Then the ghost symbolizes a special figure-background relationship.